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November 1, 2023 39 mins

Lenormand was a fortune-teller in France in the 19th century. She was hugely influential, because despite her work being illegal, very important and powerful people consulted her for cartomancy readings.


  • "Marie Anne Lenormand." Encyclopedia of World Biography Online, vol. 38, Gale, 2018. Gale In Context: U.S. History, Accessed 5 Oct. 2023.
  • “Madmoiselle Lenormand.” Chambers's Journal of Popular Literature, Science and Arts, Volume 3. W.R. Chambers. 1845.
  • Delistraty, Cody. “The Surprising Historical Significance of Fortune-Telling.” JSTOR Daily. 10/26/2016.
  • Goodrich, Frank Boott. “The court of Napoleon.” New York, Derby & Jackson. 1857.
  • Greer, Mary K. “Mlle. Lenormand, the most famous card reader of all time.” Mary K. Greer's Tarot Blog.
  • Gronow, Rees Howell. “Celebrities of London and Paris: Being a Third Series of Reminiscences and Anecdotes of the Camp the Court and the Clubs : Containing a Correct Account of the Coup D'état.” Smith, Elder & Company, 1865
  • Harvey, David Allen. “Beyond Enlightenment: Occultism, Politics, and Culture in France from the Old Regime to the Fin-de-Siècle.” The Historian , SPRING 2003, Vol. 65, No. 3. Via JSTOR.
  • Howitt, William. “Mademoiselle le Normand, The Parisian Sibyl of the Revolution.” The Spiritual magazine. London, F. Pitman [etc.]. 1860.
  • Irving, Washington. “The journals of Washington Irving (hitherto unpublished).” Boston. Bibliophile Society. 1919.
  • Jewett, J.P. “Remarkable Women of Different Nations and Ages.” 1858.
  • Le Normand, M. A. “The oracle of human destiny: or, the unerring foreteller of future events, and accurate interpreter of mystical signs and influences; through the medium of common cards.” London. C.S. Arnold. 1825.
  • Levi, Eliphas. “Dogma et Rituel de la Haute Magie.” Translated by A. E. Waite. Vol. 2. Originally published by Rider & Company, England, 1896.
  • O'Meara, Barry Edward. “Napoleon in Exile, Or, A Voice from St. Helena.” W. Simpkin and R. Marshall, 1822.
  • Rogers, Charles. “Memorials of the earl of Stirling and of the house of Alexander.” 1877.
  • Shelley, Lady Frances. “The diary of Frances, Lady Shelley.” Vol. 1. 1912.
  • Sylverne, Stephanie. “Good Fortune: How Empress Bonaparte Popularized the Tarot Card Trend and Made Her Cartomancer a Household Name.” Mental Floss. 11/1/2017.
  • The National Magazine. “Mademoiselle le Normand.” 1853.

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