Stuff You Should Know

Stuff You Should Know

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October 13, 2020 50 min
Without wind tunnels we may not have airplanes right now. Early aviationists built them to puzzle out how to get and stay airborne. But wind tunnels are used for so much more than flight – from microchips to wind turbines. Enjoy this breezy episode. Learn more about your ad-choices at
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The text below is machine transcribed.

Welcome to Stuff You Should Know a production of iHeartRadio, hose stuff works, Ey and welcome to the podcast I'm Josh Clark, there's Charles W Bryant there's Jerry wosh Roland over. There is just getting worse d more so this I Stuff You Should Know win tunnel a dish.

Aren't you glad we're not in the same room so that you couldn't smell my breath when I went yeah, my daughter's got in a bad habit of doing that and she thinks it's funny. I'm like it's really not of what of like, breathing and someone's nose on purpose like right in your face and like no one. No one likes that yeah she's just entered the age of what five to fifty five yeah, where that's something people do yeah t not funny. Ever I tell you what these masks that were all wearing this a real reckoning with your breath, though idn't it. Oh my God!

It's funny! It's like a it's like an hour by hour slide an to despair.

Youre, like I don't remember, eating Garli Yeah! It's like in the morning is like Oh man. This is great, and I love this mask and later in the day, you're you need that toothbrush. Yes, it's true, they say you can't smell your own breath and they are wrong and I'm brushing my teeth now more than other, because I'm get scared to go o the dentist yeah same here. I'm also flosting like a mad person too you're flassing right now I can. I can hear it wow. That was the most PC thing. I've ever said is what I'm flossing like a mad person, not a madmate and technically. I guess not, I would have said, like a mentally ill health person yeah that I think thats even bad.

Who knows these days right? That's right! Let's talk about win tunnels, okay, so we're talking win tunnels and I had no idea how interesting win tunnels were. I had an Inkan that they were going to that. There was like more to win tunnels than people realize, which is absolutely true, but they're they're, pretty they're a deep cut yeah I mean there was way, there's way more to them, and you can do way more with them and learn way more from them than I thought, because my experience with win tunnels, like most people, is seeing the cool TV commercial, with the with the like green smoke flying over the car right just demonstrate how arodynamic it is and to be sure that is a very big part of what they use went tunnels for yeah, yeah and Chuck. You know you and I were in a commercial in a win tunnel.

I thought you might bring this up.

There was a wind tunnel technically that I, that indoor skydaving Ting is a type of win tunnel. It's a vertical wind tunnel yeah, if you guys haven't seen that it's been a while, since we promoted these things, we used to do these little shorts.

No, this was different. Well, no, but these were based on those shor o sure sure, yes, yeah. We did these little shorts that we called interstitials did a lot of them and to me it's like the best video work, we've ever done as a team.

I love don't be done, but that was just you oh go on.

Well, it was great, it was you in a room and it was this chair and he sort of played a character. Yes go on and some people had problems with the character because I thought you're making fun of a certain kind of person. Yes sure sure that wasn't true, it was all very kind hearted and just funny, that's right.

That was really great. Thank you sure and that chair still here in the office right.

Yes, it is - and I believe my outfit still is, I'm waiting for the SMITSONIAN come so yeah. We did this TV commercial for Toyota.

That was very much in the vein of those interstitials where we were in just all over Atlanta and various parts of Atlanta doing funy other things. That was la remember. Well, now, thisagain talking about the original Interstaio Gous, I'm so confused.

Then when we went to La we did the same thing. We replicated that style in Los Angeles and long. The upshot of this all is we end up in a indoor skydiving facility. Having a conversation like you know, a normal conversation or trying to that was the GIG, the Gig that was the gag, that was thet, really yeah and you get slung against the side of it at the end, which is kind of the funniest part. Yeah really really was.

It was supposed to be an outtake and they made it an intake yeah. Those things were very difficult to if you've never done one before there I mean it was fun and kind of cool, but it's not easy.

You don't just go in there and be like Hey, I'm floating.

No, it's really really hard. Actually yeah, like you're working every muscle in your body, it's kind of like water, skiing looks fun too yeah. You were good at it. I was not very good. I was okay, but it was. It was tough yeah.

So that was what would be technically called t a vertical wind tunnel right yeah and they actually use those to research spin like when something goes in like a tailspin.

Like a helicopter goes in a TAILSPAN, they would use a vertical wind tunnel, Tho test for that kind of thing right, but the wind tunnels, we kind of more think of or the horizonal tubes, where you see a car or something like that having the cool smoke blown over it for a commercial but they're very useful, and this is something I didn't really know. I kind of I kind of just thought they were all these big giant things that you would put an actual car in most wend tunnels. Are these little desk top models that you use in a science lab right that have a scale model that you're using instead of the actual thing right which which means yeah that you're using a smaller version, but that is precisely scaled down. I goit's roughly right Si lo e right size. I Qu I'm sure this planeill fly. This is close enough, but what's need about that is that they can scale. This thing down, they can subject it to. You know the same conditions as they would a full size model, but then they can correct for the data, the whatever what the numbers they're getting the output. They can correct to scale it back upwards, just using math because yeah, if there's one thing that goes hand in hand with wind tunnels. It is math friends, because the whole point of wind tunnels is to study aerodynamics, which is the flow of air or gas, is over an object, and in this case it's a stationary object in the wind is moving. But what they're really doing is simulating that object. Moving out there in the real world in the wind - and I mean that's a wind tunnel - and when you put it like that, it sounds very simple.

They are not simple at all. There's really nothing about win tunnels, Tat, simple from their construction to their cost, to what they're used for to all of the different variables and conditions that they can test for their.

They grew step in Stephand in hand with the aviation industry, like we probably wouldn't, have an aviation industry right now. Without wind tunnels, and that should kind of give you an idea of how complex the stuff that people are doing in win, tunnels is, or the data they're extracting from these wind tunnels tests. It's not just like look that cool green teao fending over the car. That's for for Yokels, like you and I watching ads. While you know in between golf right, you know like you're watching golf an the AGG comes on sure.

My brain is best part of Golf that ads I've actually kind of gotten.

Are you watching golf now, yeah kind of here or there? It's not something I seek out, but and it's not for the golf I could care less about the golf. It's the it's the views, it's the shots. The golf courses are just they have the most amazing backdrops and it's just so tranquil and calm. It's really something yeah! You know. I live right down the street from the legendary East Lake Country Club in Atlanta and Bobby Jones course, and I been to one day of that one tournament. That's the only time I've actually been to a professional golf tournament. H - and you know, I stood there - twelve feet from tiger woods. Ind The tea box is pretty pretty neat wow like just to see, because I played golf a lot growing up and it's a hard sport yeah really and to see someone. Do It pperfectly right front of your face yeah with that much power is it was. It was really impressive.

You know what what would really help tiger woods swing if they put him in a wind tunnel. Put some green smoke in the wind and watch thim swing. They could tell him how to do it better. You won't smoke I'll give them smoke. That's right! That's right, shout out to our guard Detroit crew from Bei all right. So if you want to go back in time and talk about human flight you're going to look at things like Davinchis ornathopter in tousand, fier hundred and eighty five and kind of a lot of early stabs at flying were humans looking at birds and thinking.

Well, if we're going to fly, we're going to have to learn how to flap wings really fast yeah, and it made sense - I guess, if you're looking at birds they're the only thing flying around it would make sense that that's where they would go, but they knew early on regardless of the flappin that they needed to understand, wend and how wind worked with wings, and so they started going to these little hills and mountains and they started going to caves.

They had this.

You know they were looking for some sort of predictable, constant wind, so they could do some early testing and they realize you just can't do it with Mother Nature. You can't get a consistent wind, not enough to get real data out of it and do that math that we need so so drastically to make this possible right. So an initially we got that assist from birds and that we knew wings had to be involved, got have ings the whole flapping thing really kind of threw things off for a while, but because we knew that there had to be wings.

We knew that there had to probably be some ideal or optimum shape of wings, and that's really where, when tunnels first got their start was intesting different shapes of wings or airfoils, there was a guy back in seventeen. Forty six named Benjamin Robbins, who created a wirly arm, which is basically like a it, was a centrafuse, basically is what he created. Yea had a hard time, picturing this and there's only there's this one very rudimentary sketch that made it even more confusing okay. So just just imagine you have like a pole coming out of the ground of vertically, and you have an arm attached to that pole and the pole can spin around in a circle like a centrafuse like one of those g force, testers that they have it and like, like astronaut training. You know what I'm saying basic gos around rely yeah that thing this is what that guy invented, but it was like with wood and in the dirt. It was an it didn't, go that fast, but you could have fixed a like a wing type that you were testing to see if it worked well to the end of it and push it through the air, and it didn't really help this guy figure out what wing style or size was the best. What it helped him figure out is that it doesn't have that much to do if anything with flapping. We don't need to be wasting our time, inventing machines that that flap their wings, because that's not it it's all about this thing - called lift and drag, and the proportion between those two and if you can figure out how to get more, lift and decrease drag.

Then you can.

You can really make some.

You can fly basically - and this was the very first inklings of that that Benjamin robins came came up with yeah and when I saw was that Robin's really kind of pinpointed drag like the shape is super important and then, after him, Sir George Cayley yeah had his own whirling arm and he's the one that really figured out lift was a key after they realized the shape of the thing matters, the more than the shape like the size of it matters yeah size does matter analy when you're flying, especially when you're flying, and that, if you could just get a quick enough takeoff, you don't need to flap at all. All you need is a lot of speed at first, which they could have also gotten frankly by if they would have kept looking at birds yeah and realize they eventually stopped slapping right. They might have realized. Oh you actually don't need to flap the whole time you can glide if you've got enough speed right and well. Actually a lot of the early flying machines were gliders. It was one the the right brothers were not the first people to engage in in human flight. There is a monk named elmer of Molmsbury, who has the first recorded human flight back in ten fifty ce, not bce, and he you know that was almost a thousand years before the right brothers, but the right brothers are credited with with the like a engine powered flight human flight right, so they were dabbling n in what what Kayley and robins well Cayley, especially it figured out that you need thrust and there's just nothing around. That's light enough to produce enough thrust, so kaly actually gave up and went and joined parliament for a while before he finally created a flying machine. Fifty years before the right brothers Wat a loser, he made his.

He made his coach driver test pilot it and the coach driver was so scared, even though the flight was successful that when he landed, he was like. I quit. I quit I'm not. I don't work for you anymore, wow yeah, but George cayley's, very much overlooked figure in the history of flight.

He apparently figured out the the general shape of a modern airliner back in seventeudren and ninety nine crazy yeah.

All right. I say we take a break. Okay well, come back and talk about the first wind tunnel right after this all right. So cayley has these whirling arms going terrible name, but it worked out sure then enter a man named frank, H, Winham.

He was another Englishman and he was in the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain and he said guys we need or excuse me, gentlemen.

We need a win tunnel and we need it bad and so n, eighteen, seventy one. He had a the very first wind tunnel. I was twelve feet long about eighteen inches square with a forty mile, an hour wind, which is pretty good.

It was Consistedt of your daughter going, Oh God, stinky is Wen dumb.

Her breath. Isn't that stink, yet kids don't really start to stink until later, I think yeah until later, but the winds were powered by a steam fan at the end of the tunnel and it worked pretty well. He was able to get that leading edge of the air foil and move it up and down and change his Ango angle of attack and kind of see what shaped and what angles worked best with to get the best left.

But it was still sort of choppy and it was rough around the edges. And if you really want to make this, you know if you want to fly safely, you got to have a really really really consistent, very smooth wind to work with to get that data, and they still didn't have one at this point.

No, they still didn't, but they were advancing by leaps and mounds here that people were building their own wind tunnels, because up to that point, if you had it in a design for an airfoil for like a wing sizor shape, you had to build it and then go take it out into nature and test it and hope for the best. And it was really expensive, really Tine time consuming with your own one wint tunnel. You could make a model of the shape and test it out yourself and then see this is actually worth pursuing, or this is junk and that's it that's what our dear beloved heroes, the right brothers did in Ohio outside of Dayton, lorvil and Wilbur Wright built their own wind tunnel. These guys were just like Tinkerrs, they owned a bike shop, but they were so fascinating for following these developments, an early flight that they just kind of got into it themselves and they built themselves a wind tunnel. They had like two different or two hundred different types of wings. I believe that they messed with selected the thirty best ones that they had developed in their Wi win tunnel of their own construction and design.

And apparently I saw somewhere that by on nine tneen o one after their win tunnel tests, the right brothers couple of bicycle repairment in Dayton had the world's most accurate data scientific data on on flying and wings in the world, and they come up with it entirely by themselves. Yeah and here's the thing with these wind tunnels, especially early on and kind of still, it's not like. They could use that win tunnel and come out with a sure fire product using math and and testing different designs and shapes and tilts and angles, but it was such a time saver and broken bone saver that you didn't just say all right. Well, I think this might work. Let's go and push our cousin off of a cliff or our coach driver or whatever and see if it works, they still had their failures. All of them did oh yeah, but I mean it would have taken.

I mean, God knows how many more years, if they didn't like at least start from a point of likely success, yeah thanks to win tunnels, but I mean like look at it. They went from they finish their win tunnel tests in one thousand nine hundred and O one.

They had their first powered flight, INE thousand nine Hunden od three yeah, I mean a Tho, it's amazing two years, and it definitely did accelerate it too, and so you can see from the outset the that aviation and win tunnels just developd together and when tunnels developed aviation, but the first win Towas, like you said they had a really big problem, and that was the air that they produced. The stream of wind was very choppy very turbulent and your data was not necessarily reliable. It wasn't too terribly much better than say going out into Mother Nature and subjecting you know the same model to those wins and that's a big problem. So one of the first things that they figured out how to do was to make the wind smoother so that you could get a reliable, smooth, steady wind in your wind tunnel whenever you wanted to use it yeah and that's where we come to the modern tunnel, very, very smooth airflow and they have five basic sections of and they're. You know they're all different, but they have five basic sections in a modern tunnel.

That's the settling chamber, the contraction cone, the test section, the diffuser in the drive section.

So we start out with this swirling air and it's a big choppy mess and it enters the tunnel and we'll talk about how in a second, because it's kind of cool little counter in Tutiv. But it makes a lot of sense.

It goes into the settling chamber, which does exactly what you think it settles that air straightens it out.

They might have these little honeycomb holes or a screen or these panels, and that's just sort of the initial thing to sort of get it nice and smooth and moving in the same uniform direction.

Yeah and then it goes down. They step it down through that contraction cone.

And that just I mean it's like anything else. If you make the tube smaller, it's going to increase that velocity of airflow, yes and that's where it gets to the test section which is whatever and the test section depends on what you're testing. If it's a deskstop thing, the test section might be twelve inches long and you might have a tiny little model of an airplane wing in there right and that's where the actual thing you're testing is and where all the sensors are recording all the data, because you know you've got your visual Theyo got these windows, so you can shoot TV commercials and you can look at the thing right, but there's also all manner of censors to pick up on all manner of data and observations.

Yeah. I think that's really cool that they still you know when they operate win tunnels. They still watch through the window yeah because there's a lot to be gained visually from from just human beings watching this stuff - and it's cool, see you want to you - want to watch it right yeah for sure, especially when they got the green smoke. Thing turned on.

Oh absolutely, so after it goes through the the test, section enters a diffuser which kind of it slows. Things slows things down and maybe just exits. The whole thing I they're going to opposite of the contractor. It just opens back up right exactly so: There's there's there as far as breaking there's a lot of different kinds of win tunnels, as will see, but there's really kind of two categories: Two broad categories you got open and clothed circuit and an open circuit is where you have win going in on one end, going through the diffuser in the honey comb and the test ection the coming out, the other end blowing into the room and another, the with Ha closed circuit. It's just basically an oval, and so when the wind is generated, it goes through the. It goes through the test section out the back, but then bends around an ovil track and then comes back around again and through the contraction coning into the test section again and again and can just keep going rather than just blowing out the other side yeah and here's the part that I said wasn't intuitive, but its really kind of neat. When you think about it.

The drive section is where this fan is, and this is what is just generating that airflow and I always just thought a win tunnel was a fan pointing at the thing right, they're, actually behind the thing yeah, because you don't want to push air onto something you an air being pulled over something and it it just makes total sense. But you never really thought about it. You just I always just pictured a big fan blowing at a car right, but the fan would actually be behind the car and it's probably looping around and smoothing out this entire way and then being gently pulled over the car, exactly N in just the same way that the fastest way to cool off say like a server room that you don't have good cooling on you just throw a box fan the opposite way, so the Boxman is blowing out into the regular room. But at the same time it's sucking. The air, the hot air out of the a out of the server room and cool air is rushing into replace that hot air, so you're creating like airflow. That's much less turbulent when the fan sucks the air out it's much smoother than when it blows it in which creates a lot more tarbulencs, and that was the big problem that was facing like the right brothers and some of those other early wind tunnel creators is they their fans were blowing on the front of their models rather than having the fan behind it, sucking the air over the models right.

So these little models theyre kept in place, sometimes ore n wire, sometimes are on these mental poles.

Sometimes I think the really super high tech ones use super strong magnets yeah to actually hold them in place, which is pretty cool, yeah and then again, you've got all these censers all over the place. Attached to the model. Measuring I mean we'll see it gets really really deep, but just at the outset you can measure like whin velocity and air pressure and temperature, and if you're talking about airplanes, roll and Yaw and drag and lift - and I mean you can kind of do anything you want in there and if you have, I like, if you're testing, an airplane or a scale model of the airplane you're going to build it's on something called the sting which is a pole. Basically that goes into the airplanes bottom, but but then inside the airplane, the airplanes not attached to the pole, it's attached to something called Tha balance, and it's like all those censors. You just mentioned all in one instrument like a cylinder or tube and as the airplane moves and pitches and yaws and rolls and gallops and all that stuff, not gallops. So I made that part up.

It's it's. Acting on the censors and the motion. The mechanical motion on those censors is translated into an electrical impulse that travels down the Stinger into the computers, which are picking up all this data in real time and logging it and creating new new versions of the the model based on that stuff. It's pretty amazing, what's even more amazing. That makes sense that that exists. Today. That's existed since, like the es or th s in much more primitive form, but essentially the same thing that we use today the same kind of balance.

What has been around for decades? Wasn't there a simpsons joke about y'all control? Yes yeah when they had one of those like backyard rocket, O right now with Yaw Control, that's Didn' like Buzzaldrin or something so like wow. Look at that Yaw Cantyeah! I think so that was good stuff. It was good, some other things that they measure, which you might not really think about.

Existing is viscosity and compressibility is hue or the tackiness or the bountiness of the air itself. So when you're thinking about air blowing over a car driving down the road, you don't think of that Airas like being sticky necessarily, but when that air wis moving over the hood of that car and the top of that car or the plane or whatever it is.

Those little molecules are going to hit the surface and just very, very briefly, they're going to cling to that surface, and that, even for that brief, brief amount of time, it's going to create a little boundary layer of air. Next to the thing that you're trying to measure airflow over yeah, which is like, I said, a very big deal and yeah an individual air molecule is going to stick for a nano second to some ridiculously short amount of time, but there's so many air molecules that they essentially just replace each other as fast as they can move. And, yes, they create this.

This this boundary layer and as far as aerodynamics is concerned.

Your your say, your car blow go like driving through this wind that that sticking to it now has a different shape that boundary layer creates a different shape or extends it outward beyond the actual physical shape of the car, yeah and so din a tiny amount matters, yes very much so, and then so so, when you're trying to test like how fast a car is going to go, how many miles per gallon, it's going to get that kind of stuff that boundary layer makes a tremendous amount of difference because it changes physically changes. The shape of this this thing when it's out there traveling at high speeds, so one of the great benefits of an air tunnel is you can test like what boundary layers produced by this particular shape of this car. Under this condition, you know if it's ninety percent humidity, but you know forty degrees, farent height and they're, travelling at eighty miles an hour.

What kind of boundary layers produced? Okay? Well, what about seventy five miles an hour it, the sixty percent humidit? You can just change all these variables and the wind tunnel allows you to simulate it in basically get all this data in real time, just likitty split. Basically, although one other thing I just want to say this, we're making it sound like this is fast. This is actually andhas been, and especially until the age of computers very arduous work, because if you wanted to change one variable, if you said well, this headlight is actually causing way too much drag. You would have to switch that headlight out with your next Botdel and run the same tests over and over and over again with the different different conditions and log all that data, so it was really arduous before computers and you kind of get the idea that aerodynamics as a field of study is really given over to computation like there has been a huge savior for that feel and helped it along and saved a lot of people a lot of time.

Yeah - and you mentioned things like humidity and temperature theyare all different kinds of wind tunnels, and they can be very specific as to what they want to test or very broad, but they're all able to do things like that. You can dial in a temperature.

You can dial in atmospheric pressure. If you want to see what something's like on Mars, which they have to do. If you want like the Mars rover to be successful right, they can.

They can ice up a plane wing just by introducing a refrigerated air and spraying, a mist of water, that freezes and lands on the wing, and you can simulate all these different things humidity and temperature, and it's just amazing that that they thought to introduce you know at first. They started out probably just looking at aerodynamics of flow over a thing, but as they got more and more specific with their needs, they just said you know that we can design these tunnels to kind of do anything we want to do yeah like recreate any environment. You can think of basically yeah. It's true, and I mean like, as we started, to build planes that go faster and faster.

We started building tunnels that simulated that really high speed travel, and so we have hypersonic and supersonic wind tunnels that don't use fans at all, but they use like bursts of compressed air that blow right on to the model. Yeah Thoseo those do blow at the thing, instead of sucking behind it right, but it's a huge release of air that is traveling so fast it simulates. You know like a jet flying through.

You know hundreds or you know millions of miles an hour, probably yeah or hey. What's it like for a rocket human capsule to to come back into Earth's atmosphere right at this D and not burn up like they can simulate those temperatures yeah there's one in, I think North Carolina, no University of Texas at Arlington has something that can simulike. That goes up to eighty five hundred degrees. Farrent is crazy man.

It is it's a wind tunnel for all in tons of purposit's a win tunnel, but they have built these things so that they can simulate basically any any climate, and you know we talked about smoke and it's always fun in those TV commercials to see the smoke blowing over the thing yeah and it's a nice visual to sell cars that look super ardynamic in or super aerodynamic, but that visible flow isn't just you know for the the stoners in the lab department like late at night, to play around with right, although they probably do that, but they flow visualization is a real technique.

You might just have colored smoke, you might have liquid, like a mist of liquid.

You might have they use this colored oil, sometimes that you can see like the wind, pushing the oil along the surface of whatever model Yo're using and then they've got these high speed cameras capturing all of it and again it's just it's another variable they can actually look at rather than just using numbers and data yeah, I saw one one was taking photographs o like two hundred housand frames per. Second, that's how I peet it was, but it was ti they were testing like a rocket or something or model of it.

Should we take a break yeah lets all right, we'll be right back more on win tunnels right after this so chuck. I was like a lot of this really breaks. My brain, it's one of those things were like. Oh Yeah. I totally get this on the surface. Let me scratch a little deeper.

I don't understand this at all and the reason why is because you know aerodynamics requires a lot of math and formuli and all sorts of calculations that I'm not Catir grated that I'm not currently capable of doing that.

But one of the things that I tried to shake down was when you do a scale model of something yeah, do you have to scale down the conditions and right sure it turns out?

I wasn't the first one to think about this. Other people have including people who work in wind tunnels, and apparently they do not do that. They will say subjected to the same wind speed as they would like the full size one.

But then they go back and use math to adjust right these tha all the different variables and again you know we talked about pitch and Ya. Roll Drag, lift all sorts of stuff, I'm sure quite a few things invariables that you and I havean even come up with or run across during our research, but in each one of these interacts with each other thing right. So it's like one of those things where you know you have a eleven possible toppings for a pizza and yea creates twelve million potential combination. It's a brainbreaking amount of math involved, exactly S, that's what they're doing to scale it down and scale it it.

They can say: Oh well, it produce this data if we run it through h e these, you know formula like we can show that actually like it will have this effect in the in the real world they're using that level of math yeah. Anybody who can do that with math.

I admire them deeply if you're listening out there and you can do stuff like that with math.

My hat is off to you because I will never be able to do that and I admire you yeah and you know what we've taken some heat for kind of beating up on math a little bit is like boring, because we were English and journalism, guys and history guys, but I've really come to appreciate math and doing this show I'm no better at it and don't care to be.

But I appreciate the you know: Math is the one thing that doesn't care about what you think about it: it doesn't care about opinions and there's no interpretation or nuance. It's just it's just math and like what makes like to look at these to look at a math equation that would take a model of an airplane and a tiny little thing and a tiny win tunnel and then say well now we just scale it up to this, and this is how you do it right. Tus multiply by time. It makes me so nervous, but a real mathematician would be like. This is the last thing you should ever be nervous about, because it's it's just math, it's just right there. Well, it's just, and they probably the idea of them of doing public speaking would probably scare the but Jesus Otom. The thing isexactly like different things, attract different people and that's great because that makes the world a lot more rich and complex that you have all these different people. If everyone was into math it'd, be a pretty boring place or if everybody ated math uld be a pretty boring place to like you need all different kinds. Different Strokes for different folks makes the world go round. I think, is the rest of t em all right. Let's talk about some of these wind tunnels in the world, because they're amazing NASA has one at Ames research, cinter, an San Jose or near San Jose biggest in the world biggest one. A hundred and eighty feet tall, dude fourteen hundred feet long and the test ection on this thing is eighty feet tall in a hundred and twenty feet wide, so you can put a full size jet plane. In that thing, yeah I saw that I was like well what kind - and they said, seven thirty, seven yeah, that's pretty good! That kind! Buddy PT pretty good size, yeah, that's a!

I don't know if they call it this, but I hear here henceforth call it the big mamma, Ga Yeah. It uses six four story, high fans, each of which is powered by six twenty two thousand five hundred horse power motors six fans each as tall as a four story. Building that man is amazing, a hundred and fifteen mile in hour. Wins is where it tops out yeah, which is pretty great.

That there's also a lot apparently imaging.

I was reading one some, like blog post. I think I'm like a Formula One site and they were talking about how like every single company, every single racing team has in its facility of full size, wint ton like it can hold a full size formula, one car at the cost of like sixty to a hundred million dollars or whatever, but they are like cutting edge as far as aerodynamic study is concerned, and the reason why is because, like if you can shave a second office somebody's time just by Reconfigu the engineers reconfiguring the shape of a thin or a tailor? Something like that.

That's you just it just paid for itself, basically, because it may have just won. Like the you know, Athey won: Okay, ood job ere yeah. Thank you. So there are NASCARS. Ib Sky obviously got a couple of these things in North Carolina, the home of Nascar Arodin, win tunnel, that is in North Carolina and it test full size, stock cars there's no one called windsheer there.

This is a closed circuit tunnel that actually has a treadmill in it for cars. It's got a built in rolling road. Yeah porsoat in a few places like BMW, has one that I'm sure with the rolling road you know what's interesting to me, too, is so. We saw that the aviation industry and in Wen tunnels kind of grew hand in hand. The auto industry didn't really look up Wen tunnels until about the s is when they really started running their cars through those and and they went boy. These cars are not aerodynamic e. look at it. Look at that yawl control, though yeah. I love those old cars, though s my Old Plymouth, valiant that used to have yeah this wis, obviously way before anyone ever thought of anything like antilock brakes and one of the most fun things I would do when I was driving with friends on an an empty road late at night yeah. It was get up to about fifty miles an hour and just slam on the brakes.

It was so much fine man, it was great, you would just go e, would slide about a hundred feet before finally, coming to a rest, that was a great impression of slamming on the brakes too. By the way, it was good and you know it, it was like we called it the sled, because it was just this big, heavy hunk of metal. It's not like. I was sliding all over the road. I was just sliding very straight in a line.

What's the opposite of aerodynamic that Plymouth, valiant ere there yogain yeah sluggish like a whet sponge yeah, that's about right, so I think we should wrap this up on the future of win tunnels, because people have been saying like well win. Tunnels are dead now, we've got computational fluid dynamics, which is basically computers can figure all this out. If you put a shape into you, know auto cad and say computer figure out, what you know will happen if I try to fly this under these conditions, it'll tell you and they people have said well. You know it takes a lot of work and a lot of money to run and build and use wind tunnels.

So I think they're probably going away people who work in Weint, AI'l say no yeah not do away with the wind tunnels. We need them still because, yes, computation helps a lot with the early work, but when you finally have something that you need to prove you really kind of want to see it in real life, Don see that make sure yeah. You want to see that smoke yourself and you know computer simulations can't simulate green smoke very well. You got to see that in real life, so they they're, saying that this is complementary technology and that they really we need to keep our win tunnels around, because we still need them yeah and I think we'd also be remess. If we didn't say it's, not just vehicles ind, seeing how like a space shuttle or a car or a plane or a dunebuggy might might run in the wind.

If you want to see how airflow effects like a computer and components in a computer, you can. Oh yeah good point like how they come, how they cool computer chips. If you want to figure out the very best design for wind turbine or a wind farm yeah, then you can use air tunnels.

There are lots of other different uses that you don't think about just on kind of everyday product, sometimes yeah, there's a, I have to say: There's a Virginia Tech there's an Anni COIC ANACHOIC. I believe wind tunnel, where they test win turbines to see what kind of noise they're going to make and they have so. The walls are.

As far as the wind is concerned, it has four walls, but as far as sound is concerned, it has three because one of the walls is made of Kevalar, so win won't go through it, but sound will co right through it like it's, not even there, so they can take accurate measurements of what's going to happen when the wind hits this turbine.

What kind of sound is it going to make and they're making the country folk who live among Wer win turbines? Much happier, that's awesome, yeah!

So that's it for wind tunnels, everybody there's probably more to it, but it's far far beyond chucks of my grasp so again, hants off to all the aerodynamisists ind, all of their maths agreed.

If you want to know more about win tunnels go check stuff out on the Internet. I hear there's a man with the page boy haircut, who does a pretty mean demonstrateon?

No, no nop, that's just the printing press.

Okay. I thought he was a Factotema. He might be renaissance man.

Well, since I said runasides man everybodyis time for listening Mo Mai, I'm Goin to call this on wet lands, and this is one from Brian from Queens, and this is very cool. I didn't realize this. There was a a music Venu in New York when I used to live up in New Jersey, called wet lands that I would go to and I never knew there was kind of a cool story behind it, and now I do so. This is from Brian, and he says you know the New York City areas, surrounded by salt marshes and there are tons of ordinances, protecting New York, city's natural flood and pollution guards, as you described them in the s and throughout the s and s at the wet lands preserve.

I was an activist night club named for the land that Lower Manhattan was built on. The club was on Hudson in Tribecca, very much downtown Manhattan, which, back in the early settlement by the Dutch was in sub subsequent takeover by the English was all salt marshes.

Wetlands Preserve Colloqually, referred to as the wet lands, was open from eighty nine to two thousand, an one.

A dual purpose was to create an earth conscious, intimate nightclub that would nurture live music integrated with a full time. Environmental and social justice activist Centere in the club's basement wait what was the years that was open.

Eighty nine to two thousand and one there is a hundred percent chance that jewel played there.

He doesn't list Juel, but I bet she did. Okay, weal. He Listson Peo. He list a few, but he also links to many more and she's, probably in there. Okay, I think I saw ween there if I'm not mistaken, Oh cool, but he said downstairs activist plan protest, made pamphlets, wrote letters to politicians and lobbies generated boycotts and educated club patrons, while upstairs we hosted, or they hosted some formative performances for legendary rock brands. Like Pearl Jam, Dave, Matthews Marin, five oasis, widesprid Likn, I forget jewel, fish rise against fishbone Bakini, kill, blindmelon and jewel.

Yes, the nightclub raised revenue for the activism centers effort efforts in the INTURN, the Activism Center Staff and volunteers, educated night club patrons on environmental, social justice and animal rights issues through posters, educational displays, literature et Cetera and film screens.

The New York based Wetlands Activism Collective continues, the club is shut down, but they continue its environmental, social and political activism to this day, and that is from Brian stolery, Nice Brian. That's pretty great, never knew that. I think I went to a couple of shows at wet lands.

Oh you did and I never knew that there was something else going on there and I kind of had forgotten about it.

I wonder if we an show through like S, a cops cop on on the be noark that was Brian, you said Yeah Brian Stollery, that's pretty cool thanks for filling in the blanks for us, Theyre Brian, and if you want to be like Brian and filling some blanks for us, you can send us an email, send it off to stuff podcast. Did I heart? RADIOCOM Stuff You Should Know, is production of iheart radios, housestuff works for more podcast for my heart radio, because it the iHeartRadio at Apple, podcast, O whereevery, you listen to your favorite, shows

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