JAMA Clinical Reviews

JAMA Clinical Reviews

Interviews about ideas & innovations in medicine, science & clinical practice. Listen & earn CME credit... Show More

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September 22, 2020 37 min

Intimate partner violence--also known as domestic abuse--may affect as many as 1 in 3 women. It’s often underreported but that shouldn’t be the case. Harriet L. MacMillan, MD, from the Departments of Psychiatry & Behavioral Neurosciences and Pediatrics at McMaster University, discusses how to identify and intervene in intimate partner violence.

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Intimate Partner Violence

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When trying to administer its qualifying examination during the COVID-19 shutdowns, the American Board of Surgery failed. Jo Buyske, MD, president and chief executive officer of the American Board of Surgery, discusses what went wrong and what they are doing to fix it.

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Association Between Resident Physician Training Experience and Program-Level Performance on Board Examinations

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September 4, 2020 18 min

A new clinical trial suggests that obstructive sleep apnea (in patients unable to tolerate treatment with CPAP or other devices) can be treated with airway surgery. The author of the study published in JAMA, Stuart MacKay, MBBS, from the University of Wollongong, Australia, discusses the study and treatments for obstructive sleep apnea.

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Effect of Multilevel Upper Airway Surgery vs Medical Management on the Apnea-H...

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Cluster randomized trials are performed when an intervention must be delivered to a group of patients like when testing new nursing protocols on award or different means for cleaning beds on a ward. One type of cluster trials is called a stepped-wedge where every cluster in the study ultimately undergoes the intervention. How this works it is explained by Susan Ellenberg, PhD, from the Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and...

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September 1, 2020 26 min

Bariatric surgery is unequivocally the most effective means for inducing weight loss and managing diabetes for obese patients. There are numerous other benefits for these operations including improved long-term cardiovascular outcomes. David Arterburn, MD, MPH, a senior investigator from the Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, discusses bariatric surgery outcomes.

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Benefits and Risks of Baria...

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September 1, 2020 19 min

COVID-19 continues to rapidly spread throughout the world. In the past few months, the population affected by the disease has shifted from older to younger patients. Public health officials are concerned that younger people seem not to be very compliant with recommendations regarding masking and social distancing. It is believed that younger people think that the adverse consequences of the disease occur in the elderly and not in t...

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August 27, 2020 23 min

The new American College of Gastroenterology guideline on ulcerative colitis is discussed by one of its authors, David T. Rubin, MD, from the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center at the University of Chicago, and Maylyn Martinez, MD, also from the University of Chicago.

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Ulcerative Colitis in Adults

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August 25, 2020 13 min

Acute pancreatitis can be a devastating disease. Complications of pancreatitis can be minimized by appropriate early, initial management. Joe Hines, MD, and Raman Muthusamy, MD, from UCLA discuss the recent American Gastroenterological Association guideline on managing acute pancreatitis.

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Initial Management of Acute Pancreatitis

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August 18, 2020 34 min

Patients with serious disease fear the unknown. A physician with a serious disease knows the potential outcomes, making it far more difficult to cope. How does a physician react to developing cancer? Adam Stern, MD, an assistant professor of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, developed metastatic renal cell carcinoma when he was just 33 years old. He wrote about his experiences as a cancer patient in a Piece of My Mind article i...

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Before COVID-19, even though most children got vaccinated for measles, too many did not, resulting in worsening outbreaks of measles. People forgot how bad a disease measles is and became lax about getting their children vaccinated. Now in the COVID-19 era everyone is aware of what an out-of-control infectious disease can do and we are all anxiously awaiting a COVID-19 vaccine. Will this experience help encourage parents to get the...

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As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread throughout the world, flu season is almost upon us. This is concerning because there will be an overlap between flu and COVID-19 and patients could get both diseases. Daniel Solomon, MD, from the Division of Infectious Diseases at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital of the Harvard Medical School in Boston, discusses COVID-19 and how the flu might pan out this year.

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Influen...

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The use of hydroxychloroquine as a treatment for COVID-19 serves as an example of what is wrong with medical information being widely disseminated before it is thoroughly vetted by peer review. Preliminary studies of this treatment modality were spread widely, creating false hope that a treatment for COVID-19 existed. Several randomized trials have shown that hydroxychloroquine is not an effective therapy for COVID-19.

David Juurli...

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One of the most contentious issues relating to COVID-19 is when to reopen schools. This is a complicated matter because placing people in close quarters risks spread of the disease. Yet children being at home makes it difficult for their working parents to manage their affairs and can potentially affect the learning experience. JAMA Associate Editor Preeti Malani, MD, chief health officer for the University of Michigan, discusses s...

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August 11, 2020 22 min

The European Society of Cardiology updated its guidelines for pulmonary embolism in 2019. Jonathan Paul, MD, from the University of Chicago discusses what is new in the management of pulmonary embolism based on his August 11, 2020, JAMA Guidelines Synopsis article.

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Management of Acute Pulmonary Embolism

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A major study recently published in JAMA showed that many children who have appendicitis do not need surgery and, if they undergo surgery, may have more disability than if they were treated with antibiotics alone. JAMA Clinical Reviews spoke with a patient in the study whose mother happens to be JAMA Associate Editor Preeti Malani, MD, JAMA’s infectious diseases editor and chief health officer for the University of Michigan. This p...

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Before a study is carried out, it is important to define what is an important difference between groups. This is often not done correctly. Anna McGlothlin, PhD, from Berry Consultants discusses how to assess the minimal clinically important difference in research studies.

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Few treatments have proven to be effective for treating COVID-19. Recently, a clinical trial reporting the results of dexamethasone for treating COVID-19 was published and has received a great deal of attention in the popular media. Greg Curfman, MD, JAMA Deputy Editor, reviews the study and discusses what the findings do or do not reveal about the efficacy of dexamethasone for treating COVID-19.

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Missed Opportu...

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August 4, 2020 22 min

Congestive heart failure is common and can have devastating effects on patients' quality of life. Until recently few treatments were available, but that has changed. Congestive heart failure management has substantially improved. Hutter Family Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School James L. Januzzi Jr, MD, reviews the diagnosis and treatment of congestive heart failure.

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Heart Failure With Reduced E...

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Accumulating evidence in adults has shown that nonoperative treatment of appendicitis is an acceptable means for treatment. A recent prospective study published in JAMA has shown the same is true for children. Most children who are treated with antibiotics instead of surgery for appendicitis do just fine. The lead author for this study, Peter Minneci, MD, from the Nationwide Children’s Hospital of the Ohio State Medical School, dis...

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Some of the nearly 40 000 deaths each year in the US from breast cancer might be avoided through use of medications to prevent breast cancer in high-risk women. Patricia Ganz, MD, Distinguished Professor of Medicine and Public Health at UCLA, reviews the evidence underlying chemoprevention of breast cancer and which women might benefit from the drugs.

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Medications for Primary Prevention of Breast Cancer

Breast C...

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