The Two Testaments

The Two Testaments

A guided journey through Scripture with Rony Kozman and Will Kynes. We interview scholars to discuss the meanings of verses, passages, and books of the Bible. Think of us as an audio Bible commentary—but more exciting!


February 21, 2024 56 mins

Dr. Ian Boxall (St. Stephen's House, University of Oxford) guides us through Revelation 8:6–11:19 (The Seven Trumpets). We discuss:

* The angels blowing trumpets (8:6)

* The significance of the great burning mountain and the star being thrown into the waters (8:8-11).

* The striking and darkening of the sun, moon, and stars (8:12)

* The eagle that cries woes upon the earth (8:13)

* The bottomless pit, the smoke, and the bizarre locusts ...

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Micah with Dr. Mark Gignilliat

Dr. Mark Gignilliat (Beeson Divinity School) guides us through the Book of Micah. We discuss:

* Micah’s historical context

* Loving God and loving neighbor as the key themes of Micah

* The significance of Micah’s position between Jonah and Nahum

* The interplay of God’s judgment against Israel and the nations

* The significance of Micah 3:12 in the center of the Twelve, and its theme of the death and resurr...

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February 9, 2024 71 mins

Revelation 6:1-8:5 with Dr. David deSilva

Dr. David deSilva (Ashland Theological Seminary) guides us through Revelation 6:1-8:5. We discuss:

* The four bizarre creatures of Revelation 4–5 that appear again in chapter 6.

* The significance of the four horses and riders (6:1–8).

* The lament of the martyrs in the heavenly temple, their cry for justice, and the rationale for God’s delayed vengeance (6:9­–11).

* The 144, 000 from the tribes...

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February 7, 2024 69 mins

Jonah with Rev. Dr. Vanessa Lovelace

Rev. Dr. Vanessa Lovelace (Lancaster Theological Seminary) guides us through the Book of Jonah. We discuss:

* What we can know about Jonah’s historical context

* Major themes in Jonah including repentance and forgiveness

* God relenting from judging Nineveh in Jonah compared to God judging Nineveh in Nahum

* Jonah as the anti-prophet

* If Jonah is meant to be taken as a universal or particular message


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January 24, 2024 39 mins

Dr. Juan Hernández Jr. (Bethel University) guides us through Revelation 4-5. We discuss:

* The significance of the repeated title, "him who sits on the throne"

* The four living creatures around the throne

* The twenty-four elders who lay down their crowns and their hymn

* Why the scroll cannot be opened

* John's presentation of the lamb as having seven horns and seven eyes.

* Why the lamb's blood is said to ransom people

* John's high ch...

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January 21, 2024 71 mins

Amos with Dr. M. Daniel Carroll R.

Dr. M. Daniel Carroll R. (Wheaton College) guides us through Amos. We discuss:

* God as the main theme of Amos

* The interplay of ethics, theology, and worship

* The meaning of one of the most well-known verses of Amos: “But let justice roll down like waters, and righteousness like an everlasting stream” (5:24)

* The judgment of the nations in Amos 1–2 as a strategy of suspense rather than entrapment

* ...

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Dr. Jeffrey Weima (Calvin Theological Seminary) guides us through Revelation 2-3. We discuss:

* The significance of the form of the addresses to the seven churches as sermons rather than letters

* Why John writes to these seven churches, and the significance of their arrangement

* What it means that the church in Ephesus "abandoned the love you had at first" (2:4)

* Who are the Nicolaitans and what did they do and teach? (2:6, 15)

* The...

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December 11, 2023 60 mins

Joel with Dr. Christopher Seitz

Dr. Christopher Seitz (Wycliffe College, University of Toronto) guides us through the Book of Joel. We discuss:

* How to read a book (like Joel) that does not situate itself historically and temporally

* The significance of the four locusts in Joel–the swarming locust, the hopping locust, the destroying locust, the cutting locust (Joel 1:4)

* How Joel’s phrase “the day of the LORD” can refer to two days


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December 1, 2023 53 mins

Revelation 1 with Dr. Robyn Whitaker

Dr. Robyn Whitaker (Pilgrim Theological College, University of Divinity) guides us through Revelation 1. We discuss:

* The rhetorical/persuasive and iconic function of vivid imagery

* Whose apocalypse is this, and what does it mean that it is a prophecy? 

* Which John is responsible for Revelation and why is he in Patmos?

* John's descriptions of: God; the seven spirits; and Jesus Christ

* The vision ...

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November 17, 2023 68 mins

The Book of Hosea

Dr. Bo Lim (Seattle Pacific University) guides us through the book of Hosea. We discuss:

* When, where, by whom Hosea was written

* Main themes of Hosea

* How Hosea relates to the Book of the Twelve

* The significance of Hosea's marriage and children

* The difficult metaphor of God's marriage to Israel and if the metaphor sanctions violence.

* God's judgment upon Israel as temporary discipline

* The father-son image that ...

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November 8, 2023 65 mins

Introduction to the Book of Revelation

Listen here as Jamie Davies (Trinity College Bristol) introduces us to the book of Revelation. We discuss:

* When, where, by whom, to whom Revelation was written

* The dominant purpose of Revelation

* The importance of Revelation's imagery, and not minimizing its imagery

* The meaning of the term "apocalypse" and the significance of reading Revelation in the genre of an apocalypse

* The literary str...

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November 2, 2023 75 mins

Introduction to the Book of the Twelve

Dr. James Nogalski (Baylor University) introduces us to the Book of the Twelve. We discuss:

* The significance of the titles, "The Book of the Twelve" and "Minor Prophets."

* The historical context of the development of The Twelve.

* The different canonical placements of The Twelve, and the different traditions of ordering the individual books of The Twelve within the collection.

* Catchwords that ...

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April 19, 2023 46 mins

Archaeology and the Gospels with Dr. James Strange

Dr. James Strange (Samford University) talks to us about archaeology and the gospels. We discuss:

* The Shikhin excavation project in Israel

* Oil lamp production in the first century

* How archaeologists relate archaeology and the text of the gospels

* How an archaeologist may read Matthew 5:14-15, including:

* "You are the light of the world. A city built on a hill cannot be hid" (v. ...

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Matthew 28 (Resurrection and the Great Commission) with Dr. Terry Donaldson

Dr. Terry Donaldson (Wycliffe College, University of Toronto) talks to us about Matthew 28. We discuss:

* The Great Commission scene as Matthew's narrative conclusion

* How Matthew's ending compares with Mark's ending

* Matthew's apologetic concern in the presentation of Jesus' resurrection

* Whether to translate the Greek term "Ioudaiois" (in 28:15) as "Judeans...

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April 5, 2023 64 mins

Dr. Rebekah Eklund (Loyola University Maryland) talks to us about Matthew 26–27. We discuss:

* Matthew's use of the Passover festival

* Jesus' prayer of lament at Gethsemane

* Peter's denials of Jesus and his restoration

* why Jesus refers to himself as the Son of Man

* Judas' betrayal of Jesus

* Matthew's use of the theme of blood

* the meaning of "his blood be upon us and on our children" (27:25)

* Matthew's use of Psalm 22 when Jesus pr...

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March 28, 2023 57 mins

Dr. Daniel Block (Wheaton College) talks to us about Deuteronomy 31–34. We discuss:

* these chapters as a death narratives

* their rhetorical purpose

* why Moses is barred from the land

* the Song of Moses

* how to translate 32:8 (gods/sons of Israel/angels)

* Moses's final blessings on the tribes of Israel

Books by Daniel Block

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* The Triumph of Grace: Literary and Theological Studies in Deuteronomic Theme...

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Matthew 24–25 (God's Judgment; the Coming of the Son of Man) with Dr. Anders Runesson

Listen here as Dr. Anders Runesson (University of Oslo) talks to us about Matthew 24–25. We discuss:

* God's wrath and judgment

* the significance of the destruction of the temple

* the relationship between the destruction of the temple and the death of Jesus

* signs of the coming of the Son of Man

* the meaning of "the abomination of desolation"

* the p...

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March 15, 2023 54 mins

Deuteronomy 27–30 (Covenant Ritual) with Dr. Melissa Ramos

Listen here as Dr. Melissa Ramos (Portland Seminary) talks to us about Deuteronomy 27–30. We discuss:

* the relationship with ancient Near Eastern rituals

* the stones as witnesses to the covenant

* the tribes' roles in the ritual

* the ethical vision of the blessings and curses

* the distinctive nature of Deuteronomy's inclusion of blessings

* Deuteronomy's view of human ability ...

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It’s spring break here at Samford University, so we’re re-releasing one of our favorite episodes from our archives. Providing a fittingly profound conclusion to our journey through Job last season, Carol A. Newsom (Candler School of Theology) talked to us about Job’s response and the epilogue in Job 42. We discussed a number of things including:

* how to understand Job’s enigmatic response to God

* why the translation of 42:6 in you...

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March 1, 2023 67 mins

Matthew 20:29–23:39 with Dr. Amy-Jill Levine

Dr. Amy-Jill Levine (Hartford International University for Religion and Peace) talks to us about Matthew 20:29–39. We discuss:

* Jesus' entry into Jerusalem

* the trilogy of parables

* the Pharisees

* suggestions for teaching Matthew 23 with sensitivity

Books by Dr. Amy-Jill Levine

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* The Pharisees, ed. with Joseph Sievers. Eerdmans, 2021. 

* The Sermon on the Mo...

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