Preconceived examines the preconceptions that shape how we view the world and challenges the paradigms by which we live our lives. The show is hosted by ophthalmologist Zale Mednick. This show is part of the Spreaker Prime Network, if you are interested in advertising on this podcast, contact us at


December 5, 2023 36 mins
At its core, sex is supposed to be pleasurable. It’s typically considered much easier for a male to reach orgasm than a female, and although orgasm is not the only way to experience pleasure from sex, it’s certainly a more defined and easily measurable endpoint. So with that said, how frequently and to what degree do women experience sexual pleasure when compared to men? Does it often take more time for women to understand their...
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With the advent of botox and fillers, cosmetic procedures have become much quicker to administer and more accessible to the masses. In many ways, one could argue this is a good thing – it offers a service to people who want it in a more available way than ever before. But in other ways, has the obsession with a certain definition of beauty and staying younger only further stigmatized getting older and aging naturally? Has the wo...
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November 21, 2023 57 mins
Napoleon Bonaparte is considered one of the greatest military leaders of all time. He is often mentioned alongside names such as Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar, but whereas they existed thousands of years ago, he died only 200 years ago. And as such, his legacy is perhaps still being shaped more so than other comparatively more ancient figures. So what is the legacy of Napoleon? What are some of the preconceptions that have ...
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November 14, 2023 39 mins
Choosing a baby name can be stressful. While a name is just a name, it will follow your child around for the rest of their life. What are some of the factors that go into this decision, and what are some newer trends that are being witnessed? The preconception might be that picking a baby name is as simple as googling lists online, but how can the process be more targeted and simplified? Name consultant Steph Coffield joins the pod...
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November 7, 2023 45 mins
We often hear American politicians recite lines like, ‘The United States is the greatest country in the world’. Especially when it comes to US presidential elections, the notion that the United States is somehow different than the rest of the world is on full display. There’s an idea of American exceptionalism that persists, the thought that the United States is a fundamentally unique and special country, based on ethical pillars t...
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October 31, 2023 36 mins
One of the most significant preconceptions that governs our lives revolves around our career trajectory. For the most part, the status quo typically involves us choosing a general career path in our twenties and sticking with it for the duration of working years. But not for all of us. Robert Markowitz was a practicing criminal lawyer who gave it all up and became a clown. He joins the podcast.

Robert's book 'Clown Shoes' -
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The terms ‘wellness’ and ‘mental health’ have been around for many years, but over the last decade, it’s taken on a life of its own. And while most of us would agree that looking after our wellness and self-care is a very important thing, one might also wonder, has this movement gone too far in some regards? And while it might seem that such a focus on wellness would naturally reduce stigma regarding actual psychiatric illness, is ...
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October 16, 2023 40 mins
On October 7th, Israel experienced its bloodiest day since its founding in 1948. In the immediate aftermath of these crimes, anti-Israel and anti-Semitic protests erupted around the world, coinciding with Hamas's "Day of Rage" to "attack Israelis and Jews". In this episode, we try to understand the events that transpired and equally try and comprehend the world's response. Risa Epstein, an educator on Judaism and Israel, joins the ...
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October 10, 2023 48 mins
We live in a world in which we have easy access to almost anything we want. We see something online that we want, and we can have it delivered to our home that same day. And while increased access and availability can be a good thing, it can also be a dangerous one. With limitless access to more seemingly benign pastimes such as shopping and social media, as well as more obviously concerning pastimes such as drugs, gambling, and po...
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October 3, 2023 40 mins
Pretty much everyone knows that recycling is important. But what exactly is recycling? The concept that’s been disseminated to society is that when you recycle thing, it gets repurposed and reused, hence recycled. This reduces the amount of garbage that goes into landfills and is ultimately a good thing. But is the glory, so to speak, of recycling somewhat of a preconception? How much of what you put into that recycling bin truly g...
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Over the past several years, there has been controversy in many fields of the art world, including literature, film and television. Questions have been posed regarding the appropriateness of authors writing about certain topics, and actors portraying certain characters. For example, is it okay for a White author to write a fictional book about slavery in the United States? Is it okay for a cis male to play a trans male in a movie? ...
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September 19, 2023 37 mins
Bipolar Disorder is an oft-misunderstood condition by the public. It can be tough to comprehend, because it requires an understanding of each of depression, mania, and the swings that can occur between them. So what exactly is Bipolar Disorder? What kind of insight does a patient with the disease have when they are experiencing the swings in mood and tendencies? And what are some of the benefits of manic episodes, if there are any ...
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September 12, 2023 44 mins
Torture is generally thought of as a bad things - an unacceptable means to an end. But what if that end is justifiable? In many cases, torture is clearly unethical - for example when used as a means of political suppression, as a fear tactic, or for a forced confession. But what about torture in more ambiguous cases - when the torturer is fairly confident that the person being tortured has key information that could save many li...
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September 5, 2023 46 mins
Money did not always exist in its current form. There was a time when goods and services were just exchanged for one another, without actual coins or cash changing hands. The preconception is that our current monetary system, the status quo, makes complete sense. But as millennia of history have proven to us, money is very complex, and there is a lot at stake. Jacob Goldstein, host of the popular NPR podcast, Planet Money, joins th...
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August 29, 2023 35 mins
In the life of an athlete, one of the major decision points is getting a sports agent to negotiate on their behalf. For most athletes, this is just ‘what you do’, the status quo. But recently, this paradigm has been challenged to an extent. After one high profile athlete negotiated without a sports agent, the necessity and role of the sports agent was called into question. Sports agent Even Laufer joins the podcast to break dow...
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August 22, 2023 48 mins
With over two billion followers worldwide, Christianity is the most popular religion in the world. For some, the preconception is ‘of course Christianity is the correct religious view’, with so many people subscribing to it. For others, the preconception might be, ‘how is it possible that so many people believe in a religion defined by a historical event that nobody can prove?’. Because in contrast to many other religions and world...
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In the wake of 'Barbenheimer', there is perhaps more excitement surrounding the moviegoing experience than there has been in many years. But why does it feel like the film industry has been a bit lacklustre for the past while? Has the divide been film critics and audience grown, as critically acclaimed movies seem to get less attention than blockbuster Marvel-type films? And ultimately, what actually makes for a solid movie? En...
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August 8, 2023 43 mins
Shinji Mikamo is a survivor of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima in 1945. His daughter, psychologist Dr. Akiko Mikamo, joins the podcast to share her father's story of survival and resilience in the face of the most deadly bomb to ever be dropped on the planet. She speaks about some of the common historical misconceptions regarding the necessity of dropping the atomic bomb and shares her father's lessons of forgiveness and empathy th...
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August 1, 2023 49 mins
What if you could undergo a scan of of your whole body once a year to screen for any tumors, aneurysms, or any other medical abnormalities? On the surface, it sounds like a great idea, and indeed many companies are offering the opportunity to undergo whole body MRIs to catch medical findings before they become medical 'problems'. But is whole body MRI really all it's cracked up to be? Or can it also lead you down a rabbit hole chas...
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July 25, 2023 43 mins
Most of us are familiar with the ethical quandaries of eating meat, and in particular the large-scale abuse of animals in modern-day farming and mass meat production. And in many ways, the question of whether it is ‘okay’ to eat other animals is a philosophical and personal one. But what does the research show about more objective measures of eating meat, like how it affects the environment and the impact it has on our health? P...
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