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August 1, 2022 41 min

Ancient cultures all over the world used the pulse as a diagnostic tool. And eventually, we figured out how to measure blood pressure, and hypertension came to be viewed as a disease.


  • Booth, Jeremy. “A Short History of Blood Pressure Measurement.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine. Vol. 70. Nov. 1977.
  • Elias, Merrill F. and Amanda L. Goodell. “Setting the record straight for two heroes in hypertension: John J. Hay and Paul Dudley White.” Journal of Clinical Hypertension. 9/21/2019.
  • Greene, Jeremy A. “Releasing the Flood Waters: Diruil and the Reshaping of Hypertension.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine, Vol. 79, No. 4, Winter 2005.
  • Harold, John Gordon. “Harold on History | Historical Perspectives on Hypertension.” American College of Cardiology. 11/20/2017.
  • Hay, John. “The Significance of a Raised Blood Pressure.” British Medical Journal. 7/11/1931.
  • Johnson, Richard J. et al. “The discovery of hypertension: evolving views on the role of the kidneys, and current hot topics.” Renal Physiology. 1/2/2015.
  • Kotchen, Theodore A. “Historical Trends and Milestones in Hypertension Research: A Model of the Process of Translational Research.” Hypertension. Vol. 58, 2011.
  • Labos, Christopher. “The Current Hypertension Controversy: There is None..” McGill. 2/8/2018.
  • Lüscher, Thomas F. “High blood pressure: new frontiers of an old risk factor.” European Heart Journal (2017) 38, 2791–2794. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehx544
  • Moser, Marvin. “Historical Perspectives on the Management of Hypertension.” Journal of Clinical Hypertension. 5/22/2007.
  • Postel-Vinay, Nicolas, editor. “A Century of Arterial Hypertension 1896-1996.” Wiley. 1996.
  • Saklayen, Mohammad G. and Neeraj V. Deshpande. “Timeline of History of Hypertension Treatment.” Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine. 2/23/2016.
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