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January 9, 2023 41 min

Kittie Knox was a cyclist during the bicycle boom of the late 19th century. She was biracial and became known not just for participating in a predominantly white sport, but also for the clothes she wore to do it.


  • Adams, Dan. “Ceremony honors cyclist who broke barriers: Kittie Knox showed pluck on wheels.” Boston Globe. 9/30/2013.
  • Bashore, Melvin L. "Astoria: The Starting Point in Long-Distance Cycling." Oregon Historical Quarterly, vol. 123, no. 3, fall 2022, pp. 254+. Gale In Context: U.S. History, Accessed 5 Dec. 2022.
  • "Bicycle." Britannica Library, Encyclopædia Britannica, 20 Dec. 2021. Accessed 7 Dec. 2022.
  • "Bicycles." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History, edited by Thomas Riggs, 2nd ed., vol. 1, Gale, 2015, pp. 129-132. Gale In Context: U.S. History, Accessed 7 Dec. 2022.
  • "Bicycling." American Eras, vol. 8: Development of the Industrial United States, 1878-1899, Gale, 1997, pp. 401-402. Gale In Context: U.S. History, Accessed 7 Dec. 2022.
  • Boyd, Herb. “Kittie Knox of cycling fame and fashion.” New York Amsterdam News. 11/24/2022-11/30/2022.
  • Cambridge Black History Project. “Katherine T. ‘Kittie’ Knox.”
  • Cycling Authority of America. “The Bearings.” Via Internet Archive. Vol. 7, no. 2 (Feb. 10, 1893)
  • “The Science of Cycling.”  
  • Finison, Lorenz J. “Boston’s Cycling Craze, 1880-1900: A Story of Race, Sport and Society.” University of Massachusetts Press. 2014.
  • Finison, Lorenz J., "Cycling Historiography, Evidence, and Methods" (2014). Boston’s Cycling Craze, 1880-1900: A Story of Race, Sport, and Society. Paper 1.
  • "FIRST CARGO ELECTRIC-ASSIST TRICYCLE ADDED TO CITY FLEET, NAMED AFTER KITTIE KNOX." States News Service, 21 Aug. 2020, p. NA. Gale General OneFile, Accessed 5 Dec. 2022.
  • Friends of Mount Auburn. “A Monument for Kittie Knox.” 9/30/2013.
  • Friends of Mount Auburn. “Kittie Knox (1874 – 1900).” Mount Auburn Cemetery.
  • Guroff, Margaret. “American Drivers Have Bicyclists to Thank for a Smooth Ride to Work.” Smithsonian. 9/12/2016.
  • A.W. Bulletin and Good Roads. July 1895. Via HathiTrust.
  • LaFrance, Adrienne. “How the Bicycle Paved the Way for Women's Rights.” 6/26/2014. The Atlantic.
  • Miller, Grace. “Breaking the Cycle: the Kittie Knox story.” Unbound: Smithsonian Libraries and Archives. 5/26/2020.
  • National Women’s History Museum. “Pedaling the Path to Freedom: American Women on Bicycles.” 6/27/2017.
  • Neejer, Christine. "A conservative road: the bicycling rhetoric of Mary Sargent Hopkins." Intertexts, vol. 18, no. 1, spring 2014, pp. 93+. Gale Academic OneFile, Accessed 7 Dec. 2022.
  • Sani, Hamzat. “League Equity History.” League of American Bicyclists.
  • Simpson, Clare, and Rob Hess. "Bicycling." Encyclopedia of Recreation and Leisure in America, edited by Gary S. Cross, vol. 1, Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004, pp. 95-101. Gale In Context: U.S. History, Accessed 7 Dec. 2022.
  • Smithsonian Bicycle Collection. “The Development of the Velocipede.” Smithsonian.
  • Stanford Braff, Carolyn. "The Perfect Time to Ride: A History of the League of American Wheelmen" (PDF). American Bicyclist: 18–23. November-December 2007.
  • Szczepanski, Carolyn. “Women’s (Bike) History: Kittie Knox.” League of American Bicyclists. 3/8/2013.
  • Tolman, Lynne. “League rights a wrong, lifting forgotten racial ban.” Worcester Telegram & Gazette. 5/30/1999. Via Major Taylor Association.
  • “How Bikes Became One of the Best Things to Happen to Feminism.” 8/26/2019.
  • See for privacy information.

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