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January 23, 2023 40 min

Humans have worked on ways to make garments water resistant almost since they started to wear them. But figuring out how to manufacture a raincoat using rubber was a big breakthrough that took centuries.


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  • SCHURER. “The Macintosh: The Paternity of an Invention.” Transactions of the Newcomen Society. 28:1, 77-87. 1951. DOI: 10.1179/tns.1951.005
  • “Charles Macintosh and Co’s Refined Malt Vinegar.” The Guardian. July 10, 1824.
  • Collins, James. “On India-Rubber, Its History, Commerce, and Supply.” Journal of the Society for the Arts. Vol. 18, No. 891. December 17, 1869.
  • Porritt, B. D. “THE RUBBER INDUSTRY—PAST AND PRESENT.” Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, vol. 67, no. 3460, 1919, pp. 252–67. JSTOR,
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  • Somma, Ann Marie. “Charles Goodyear and the Vulcanization of Rubber.” Dec. 29, 2014.
  • “Return of the Mac: The reinvention of Mackintosh.” The Independent. October 8, 2007.
  • Marshik, Celia. “At the Mercy of Their Clothes: Modernism, the Middlebrow, and British Garment Culture.” Columbia University Press. 2017.
  • Macintosh, George. “Biographical Memoir of the Late Charles Macintosh.” W.G. Blackie & Company. 1847.
  • See for privacy information.

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