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August 31, 2022 39 min

Desmond was convicted after refusing to leave her seat in a segregated movie theater in Nova Scotia in 1946. But she also established the first beauty salon for Black women her area, and founded a beauty school for Black women.  


  • Bingham, Russell. "Viola Desmond". The Canadian Encyclopedia, 16 April 2021, Historica Canada. Accessed 09 August 2022.
  • Bishop, Henry V. “Viola (Davis) Desmond (b. 1914 — d. 1965): Stand For Justice.” Nova Scotia Archives.
  • Canadian Museum for Human Rights. “One woman’s resistance: Viola Desmond's Story.”
  • Flynn, Karen. “Remembering Viola Desmond.” Origins: Current Events in Historical Perspective. 11/2021.
  • "Fred Christie Case (Christie v York)". The Canadian Encyclopedia, 06 June 2020, Historica Canada. Accessed 12 August 2022.
  • Henry, Natasha. "Racial Segregation of Black People in Canada". The Canadian Encyclopedia, 08 September 2021, Historica Canada. Accessed 10 August 2022.
  • Parks Canada. “Viola Desmond National Historic Person (1914-1965).”
  • Reynolds, Graham and Wanda Robson. “Viola Desmond: Her Life and Times.” Roseway Publishing. 2018.
  • Robson, Wanda. “Sister to courage : stories from the world of Viola Desmond, Canada's Rosa Parks.” Wreck Cove, N.S. : Breton Books. 2010.
  • The Halifax Chronicle. “Dismisses Desmond Application.” 5/19/1947. page 14. Via Nova Scotia Archives.
  • "Viola Desmond." Encyclopedia of World Biography Online, Gale, 2022. Gale In Context: U.S. History, Accessed 8 Aug. 2022.
  • Walker, Barrington. “The African Canadian Legal Odyssey: Historical Essays.” Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 2012.
  • See for privacy information.

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