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June 7, 2021 125 min

This episode I discuss endurance: our ability to perform effort over extended amounts of time. I describe the four kinds of endurance: muscular endurance, long-duration (single-set) efforts, and the two kinds of high-intensity interval training that can benefit our brain and various systems of our body. I discuss the fuel systems they each rely on and how to build up your capillary beds in muscle, and in the brain to increase oxygen utilization or improve postural endurance. I discuss efficiency of effort and maximizing quality of effort, as well as the simplest hydration formula. I review how our heart literally gets stronger (as a muscle) when we oxygenate muscles properly and ways to warm up with and improve respiration/breathing. I also discuss motivation for long bouts of work and the visual physiological basis of the "extra gear" we all can leverage for effort. Finally, I review how accelerating as we fatigue can allow us to access untapped energetic resources. As always, both science, mechanism and tools are discussed throughout


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    00:00:00 Introduction
    00:05:45 Why Everyone Should Train Endurance
    00:09:49 All Episodes Now Searchable at & The Neural Network
    00:11:28 How To Maintain Muscle
    00:12:56 Endurance: It’s Not What You Think, Crossover With Brain Function
    00:14:38 Energy; Many Paths To ATP: Creatine, Glucose, Glycogen, Fat; Ketones
    00:18:00 The Vital Need For Oxygen: But Why?
    00:19:00 What Allows Us To Endure (Anything)?
    00:20:46 The 5 Things That Allow Us To Persist/Endure & What Causes Quitting
    00:22:50 Why You Quit: It IS All In Your Mind
    00:27:19 The “90% Mental” Myth
    00:28:10 The Critical Need For Carbohydrates & Electrolytes (& Sometimes Ketones)
    00:30:10 Phospho-Creatine, Glycogen, pH, Temperature Is Key
    00:31:36 Using Your Blood, Heart, & Lungs To Go Longer, Further, With More Intensity
    00:35:40 An Excellent Review on the Science of Training Adaptations (See Caption On YouTube)
    00:37:15 The 4 Kinds of Endurance
    00:38:53 Muscular Endurance: Powerful for Everyone: Posture, Performance, Resilience
    00:41:50 Protocol For Building Muscular Endurance. No Major Eccentric Component
    00:48:40 How to Make Muscles More Resilient: Mitochondrial Respiration, Neuronal Firing
    00:51:31 Long Duration Endurance: 12 minutes or More, One “Set”, Efficiency of Movement
    00:57:00 Why Everyone Should Train Long Duration Endurance: Capillaries In Muscle & Brain
    01:01:00 Two Distinct Types of High-Intensity Interval Training: Anaerobic & Aerobic
    01:02:20 Anaerobic HIIT: 3-12 Sets, Work:Rest Ratio of 3:1 or 1:3; Quality of Repetitions is Key
    01:07:00 Maximizing Oxygen Utilization, Heart Rate & Nerve-Muscle Energy Utilization
    01:10:59 Aerobic HIIT; 1:1 Work:Rest Ratio, Tapping Into All Energy Utilization Systems
    01:15:20 Building A Stronger Heart & Better Brain: Eccentric Loading the Heart: Stroke Volume
    01:20:10 Resistance & Weight Training: Useless for the Brain? What Is Good For the Brain?
    01:23:25 The Strength-Endurance Tradeoff; How Long to Wait Between Workouts
    01:25:45 Breathing During Endurance, Explosive and Weight Training: Nose, Mouth, Gears
    01:29:50 Intercostals & Diaphragmatic Breathing: Warming Up Intercostals Is Useful
    01:31:00 Increasing Motivation & Adrenaline
    01:32:10 Eliminating the “Side Cramp” With Physiological Sighs
    01:34:45 Accelerating Through “The Wall”: Accessing Alternative Fuel Sources; Ketone Use
    01:37:50 Hydration: Why Hydrate, How To Hydrate, & How Much Fluid To Drink
    01:41:35 “The Galpin Equation”; Gastric Emptying Time, Adapting Hydration Mid-Training
    01:44:20 Boosting Mitochondrial Density With Cold; Wait 6 Hours Before Cold/Between Training
    01:46:00 Accelerating Recovery with 5 Minute Parasympathetic Down-Shift After Training
    01:48:00 Leveraging The Visual System During Effort, Milestones; Dilation & Contraction; Pacing
    01:53:10 The Physiological Basis of Your “Extra Gear”, Accessing Your “Kick”, Steve Prefontaine
    01:56:00 Programming Examples; Concurrent Training
    01:57:57 Caffeine, Magnesium Malate to Reduce Soreness, Nitric Oxide, Beta-Alanine
    02:00:00 Synthesis; Next Episodes, Zero-Cost Ways to Support, Sponsors, Sources


    Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.


    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac -

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